Space weather can have significant effects on satellites, power grids, global positioning systems, and commuter air and space travel.
The sun is the main source of space weather. Sudden bursts of plasma and magnetic field structures from the sun’s atmosphere, together with sudden radiation bursts, all cause space weather effects on Earth.
Power outages due to space weather are rare events, but significant power outages could occur.
Terms used for space weather
SPACE WEATHER WATCH
A watch is issued when the risk of a potentially hazardous space weather event has increased significantly, but its occurrence or timing is still uncertain. A Watch is to give enough notification of possible space weather
activity with a lead-time of hours todays
SPACE WEATHER WARNING
A warning is issued when a significant space weather event is occurring, imminent, or likely. The purpose of a Warning is notification of impending space weather activity, with a lead-time of minutes to a few hours.
SPACE WEATHER ALERT
Alerts indicate that the observed conditions, highlighted by warnings, have crossed a preset threshold or that a space weather event has already started.
CATEGORIES OF SOLAR EFFECTS
Disturbances in the geomagnetic field caused by gusts in the solar wind that blows by Earth. Scale is G1 to G5, with a G1 geomagnetic storm considered minor
Solar Radiation Storms
Elevated levels of radiation that occur when the numbers of energetic particles increase. Scale isS1 to S5, with a S1 solar radiation storm considered minor.
Disturbances of where the Earth’s atmosphere meets space caused by X-ray emissions from the sun. Scale is R1 to R5, with a R1 radio blackout considered minor.